Lesson-1cat-like 像猫一样的 mother-like childlike (lovely) (褒) childish (immature) 形容成年人不成熟 (贬) at large 逍遥自在 Eg: The desperate criminal is still
cat-like 像猫一样的 mother-like
childlike (lovely) (褒) childish (immature) 形容成年人不成熟 (贬)
at large 逍遥自在 Eg: The desperate criminal is still at large.
escape 逃跑 (从危险中成功逃脱)
flee away 跑开 (run away from danger)
scatter away 四处逃窜 (in different directions)
evade tax 逃税 (逃避应该承担的责任)
desert 擅离(职守、工作岗位、现役等)；(士兵)逃亡，从…开小差 desert one's army
out class 逃课
n. 点，斑点 Eg: There is a white spot on the shirt.
a beauty spot 美人痣 solar spot 太阳黑子
spotlight 聚光灯 be in the spotlight 万众瞩目
Eg: Tom Cruse is in the spotlight in American film industry. (to achieve a lot of attention)
on the spot (非正式用法) 1.立刻，马上 (at once,immediately) 2.at the place of the action 在现场
Eg: Anyone breaking the rules will be asked to leave on the spot. Wherever she is needed,she is quickly on the spot.
A leopard will not change its spot. 江山易改，本性难移
v. to see or find sth with difficulty 不易察觉
observe (to see and notice sth) (正式) 观察，观测
discover (to find sth already in existence)
recognize (to figure out sth/sb known already)
detect (to disclose something hidden or in disguise) 探测
explore (to examine sth thoroughly in order to test or find out about it)
evidence n. 证据 = proof Eg: When the police arrived,he had already destroied the evidence.
in evidence 显而易见的 Eg: He was in evidence at the party. 他在晚会上很突出。(adj. evident adv. evidently)
(witness 证人 judge 法官 jury 陪审团 court of law 法庭)
self-evident a. 不言自明的 《The Declaration of Independence》 独立宣言
oblige v. 使...感到必须 (be made to do sth by law or morality) (often in passive voice)
feel obliged to do sth. 感觉有必要做某事 be obliged to do sth. 被迫做某事
Eg：Men feel obliged to take the responsibility for family.
compel (to make people have a particular feeling or attitude) 9-year's compulsory education
drive (to make someone feel or do sth bad or unpleasant)
drive sb. nuts 使某人发疯 Eg: The terrible music drove me nuts.
hunt v. 打猎，狩猎 hunt for/go hunting for 搜寻，寻找 hunt for a job hunt for a love
job hunter 四处寻找工作的人 head hunter 猎头 bargain hunter 四处买便宜货的人
human being(s) 人类(区别于神和动物)
mankind 人类 Eg: in the long history of the mankind
human race (all people,considered together as a single group)
be 存在 Eg: 《Hamlet》 ...when he hesitated to kill his uncle... to be or not to be 生存还是毁灭
being 1) -creature god being animal being 2) -existence coming into being 形成，成立
Eg: The People's Republic of China came into being in 1949.
for the time being 眼下，目前
Eg： For the time being,the cheetahs are hard up. 眼下猎豹的手头有点紧 (Lion king) hard up 手头紧
n. at/on the corner 在角落里 (如介词用in表示在空间的内部)
around the corner 即将到来，即将发生 (is coming) Eg: The New Year is around the corner.
cut corners 走捷径，抄近路
Eg: The puma won't attack a human being unless it is cornered. A cornered beast will do someting desperate. 狗急跳墙
trail 痕迹 a trail of a trail of mud 一串泥迹 a trail of blood
Eg: Wherever he went, the playboy left behind him a trail of broken hearts. (the playboy 应出现在主句中)
print n. 印痕，痕迹 foot print 足迹 paw print 爪痕 finger print 指纹
accumulate v. 积累，积聚 (强调积累的过程)
Eg: As the evidence accumulates,experts from the zoo felt obliged to investigate.
gather vt. 聚集，把某人召集在某处 collect 收集，采集 assemble 集合，集会； vt. 装配
hoard vt. 大量的贮存 hoard up = store up Eg: The squirrel hoards up nuts for the cold winter.
amass 积聚 = come together (主要用于诗歌和文学作品中)
pumas are large,cat-like animals which are found in America. 本句中的 be found (there be)应理解为产于、分布的意思，不应理解为被动语态。 Eg: Pandas are large,bear-like animals which are found in China.
When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London,they were not taken seriously. 本句中that后的内容作为reports的同位语从句，只是因为维持句子的平衡美感(避免头重脚轻)才放到了后面。
同位语从句与中心词是等同和等值的关系，而不是修饰与被修饰的关系。这一点与定语从句截然不同，定语从句与其先行词是修饰与被修饰的关系。定语从句的引导词 that/which 在句中作成分(主语或宾语)，而同位语从句的引导词 that 为连接词，只起连接主句与从句之作用，不做任何成分。
Eg: I was shocked when I heard the news that his father died yesterday. (The news is that his father died yesterday.)
belief fact idea doubt rumor evidence conclusion information suggestion problem order discover opinion
When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London,they were not taken seriously. 句中的they指代reports，人称或指示代词的替代含义要回到句子的切近部分寻找它的中心含义。
take sth seriously 认真对待 take sth slightly 不把...放在心上
Eg: Every one ought to take life seriously. Education is so important that we should take it seriously.
Eg: When news came into the National Museum that an ancient tomb has been spotted 100 kilometers south of Xi'an,it was taken seriously.
However,as the evidence began to accumulate, ... 句中的However是语篇标识词。
语篇标识词： (即显示语篇发展的词语) 引出作者真正意图，表明事实真相，往往前后形成鲜明，相反的对比。
... ,for the descriptions given by people who claimed to have seen the puma... (for 说明原因)
claimed to have done 动词不定式的完成式： 体现它所表示的动作发生在谓语动作之前。
Eg: Till now, no organization claimed to have been responsible for this bombing.
be similar to sb. (have a lot in common)
Eg: The brothers are similar to each other in character.
bear a resemblance to (宛如)，酷似
resemble (宛如)，酷似 -- father 父亲
look/be like 像 -- father 爸爸
take after 随 -- father 爹
pick blackberries 采黑莓 pick mushrooms 采蘑菇 pick nose 挖鼻子 pick ears 挖耳朵 pick teeth 剔牙
prove (to be) difficult
beat around the bush 拐弯抹角，旁敲侧击
on a fishing trip to on the honey-moon trip to Paris on way to on business to
unless = if not
Eg: puma will not attack a human being unless it is cornered./puma will not attack a human being if it is not cornered.
...,this one must have been in the possession of a private collector and somehow managed to escape.
must have been/done sth 作者主观的肯定判断，是事实总结、归纳的标志。
in the possession of 为...所有 (主语为物) in possession of (主语是人)
in the authority of 由...管辖 Eg: Hong Kong is in the authority of mainland.
in the care of 由...照看
in the charge of 由...负责
wild -- tame 野生 -- 驯服
wild cat 不是指野猫，而是指大型猫科动物,野猫(流浪猫) -- stray cat
domestic animals 家养动物 domestic violence 家庭暴力 domestic market 国内市场
Only when you experience the pain of pain,can you enjoy the happiness of happiness. 吃得苦中苦，方为人上人
Go with what you are. 勇往直前
on doing something 一...就...
The shelf on which you put those books has collapsed. --> The shelf you put those books on has collapsed.
From whom did you receive a letter? --> Whom did you receive a letter from? (本句中whom不能省略)
非固定动词短语： Eg: live in 居住，介词可前置 固定动词短语： Eg: look for 寻找， 介词不能前置
equal v./adj. 与...相等
adj. be equal to Eg: Wealth is not equal to happiness.
EEOC : Equal Employment Opportunities Commission
vt. 及物动词 (作动词时equal后面不能接to)
vicar 小牧师 (of the Church of England)
rector 小牧师 (of the Catholic Church)
curate 副牧师 curate's egg 有好有坏 Eg: The book is something of a curate's egg.
bishop 主教 (国际象棋里指象)
Pope (Roman Catholic) 罗马教皇
Eg: Do you think they'll win? Is the Pope Catholic? (sure)
clergyman n. 神职人员
raise vt. raise kids 养育孩子 raise money 筹集钱财 raise the roof 怒发冲冠
rise vi. The Sun Also Rises (written by Ernest Hemingway) A Farewell to Arms A Farewell to Concubine
torch n. 手电筒 carry a torch for sb. 暗恋 Why not carry on?
be always doning sth (not satisfied) 一直不停做某事
Eg: He is always finding faults with me. 他总是不断地挑我的小毛病
Things are always keeping coming up at the last minute.
be forever doing (不像be always doning sth.含有贬义) 不厌其烦
Eg: Peter is forever talking about his girl friend.
1.原因，缘故 cause and effect
2. (支持的)事业，事项 sth you support Eg： It's for a good cause. 做善事
for one cause or another/for one thing or another
Eg: He can't come for one thing or another. 由于种种原因，总之他不能来了
have sth. done (被动) 叫...做
have sb do 让某人做某事
have sth. to do 有...要做 Eg: I have another fish to fry. (I have to go.)
take a French leave 不辞而别
enough a. 足够的 Eg: I have enough of it! 我受够了! (I hate it so much!) I've had it up to here with him! 忍无可忍
cannot do sth. enough can never do sth. enough Eg: I cannot thank you enough. 感激不尽
used to do 过去常做现在不做了
be/get used to doing 习惯于...
be used to do (被动) 被用做...
strike v. strike hours 敲钟、打点、报时 strike matches 划火柴 strike sb. 打某人
Eg：Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁
strike sb. as odd 让某人觉得奇怪 Eg： His death strikes us as odd. 他的死让人觉得蹊跷
be struck by her beauty 被她的美貌打动了
day and night 日日夜夜 up and down 上上下下 back and forth 前前后后 blank and white 黑与白
ever since 引起完成时
wake up with a start 惊醒
startled (suddenly or slightly surprised)
surprised (general saying)
astounded/astonished (very surprised)
amazed (extremely surprised) 惊叹 Eg: You're amazing. 你实在是太不可思议了
stunned (程度最深) 极度震惊
before you know it (spoken: sth. will happen soon)
Eg: We'd better set off or it will be dark before you know it. 我们最好马上出发，天说话就黑了。
What's going on？ 出什么事了 What's up?
What gives? 有什么事吗 Nothing much./Not much. 没什么
in the torchlight 借着手电筒的光 in the moonlight 借着月光 Excuse me. 借光，劳驾 May I use your bathroom?
catch sight of 一下子看到、瞥见
in singt Eg: The victory is in sight. 胜利在望
fall in love at the first sight/Hit it right off 一见钟情
What on earth are you doing up here? / What the hell are you doing up here? 你究竟在这里做什么
Whatever it is? 管他呢
and whatever 等等 Eg： We had a party, drink, dance and whatever.
night after night 夜夜 (重复修饰，加强效果)
day after day / day in day out 日复一日
year after year / year in year out 年复一年
'You certainly did give me a surprise!' said the vicar. (句中助动词did为了加强语气) You certainly did.
Still,I'm glad the bell is working again. still 不过...还是
all the same / just the same Eg: Thank you all the same. 不过还是要谢谢你
nothing I can do about it 无能为力
nothing can help 帮不上忙
as good as 和...一样 Eg: He is as good as dead there.
as long as 只要, 如果 As Long as You Love Me 只要你爱我 (sung by Back Street Boys)
Eg: I don't care who you are, what you did, where you're from, as long as you love me !
better than nothing 聊胜于无
Better late than never. 亡羊补牢未为晚也
Better safe than sorry. 为了安全起见，总比到时候后悔强
Better a witty fool than a foolish wit. (Twelfth Night) 与其做愚蠢的智人不如做聪明的愚人。
a cup of tea (喜欢) Eg： Pop music isn't my cup of tea.
True generosity comes from his heart not from his purse. 真正的慷慨出自内心而非出自钱包
It was not until the thirteenth stroke that the bell stopped. (一直到...才) 全句为 it was...that 构成强调句式结构。
show you something 有些事我得跟你讲 (为难的不好说出来的)
on the slow side 属于反应有点慢的那一种
in prep. 表达惊奇、恐惧、失望或生气等感情色彩的名词搭配连用，在句中起状语作用
in surprise 惊讶地
in astonishment 惊愕地
in alarm 惊恐地
in embarrassment 窘迫地
in amazement 特别惊讶地
in despair 绝望地
in dismay 沮丧地
in anger 生气地
in disappointment 失望地
in prep. 表示以、用；用于语言，书写材料,色彩或声音等方面
in ink 用钢笔
in a few words 用几句话
in such a high voice 用这么高的声音
in oil 用颜料
in red 用红颜色
in code 用密码
in trouble/in difficulty 在困境中
in bed 卧床
in a hurry 匆忙地
in debt 负债
in love with sb. 爱上了某人
in tears 哭泣
in good order 情况正常
in good repair 维修良好
in good health 身体好
in poor health 身体状况不佳
in the bad mood 情绪不好
in the good mood 心情好
in haste 匆匆忙忙
in a favor of excitement 欣喜若狂
in poverty 在贫困之中
in luxury 奢侈
unknown 1. not be known by name 无名的 2. not well-known 不出名的
I'm nobody. 我默默无闻 I'm a small potato. 我是一个小人物
a household name 家喻户晓 VIP He is somebody. 他是有来头的 a big shot 大人物
goddess n. 女神
hostess 女主人；女主持人 stewardess 空姐 mistress 情妇；(旧)女家庭教师 tigress 雌老虎 mother tiger 母老虎
性别：gender (文) sex
人： female/male female/male she/he
arch(a)eologist n. 考古学家
arch 拱门 arch- 主要的、重要的 archbishop 红衣大主教 - ology (scientific study) 科学研究 -ist ...人;...家
-ology Eg: anthropology 人类学 anthropoid 类人猿 psychology 心理学 philosophy 哲学；人生观 physiology 生理学
-ist Eg: specialist 专家 a heart specialist 心脏病专家 Buddhist 佛教徒
racist 种族主义者 terrorist 恐怖主义分子 pacifist 反战主义者
explore v. 考察；勘探 explorer explode v. 爆炸 exploit v. 利用；剥削 exploit child labor 剥削童工
promontory n. 海角 cape 海角(三面环水的平地) the Cape of Good Hope 好望角
English channel Taiwan strait pirate 海盗；盗版 delta 三角洲 Nile Delta 尼罗河三角洲
prosperous a. 繁荣昌盛的 prosperity n.
Eg: We'll keep the prosperity and stability of HK at any cost. at any cost/at any price 不惜任何代价
The America experienced the Great Depression in 1930s'.
After the boom,everything is gloom. 繁荣过后，进入萧条
slump n. 衰退 a slump in stock 股价下跌
slack a. 松弛的；不振作的；(市场)疲软的
in low time 在不如意的时候 eg: The business is in low time. 生意萧条
civil a. civil rights 民权 civil law 民法 --- criminal law 刑法 civil servant 公仆(国家公务员)
civil engineering 土木工程 civil war 内战 domestic market 国内市场 domestic violence 家庭暴力
domestic flights 国内航班 home crowd 家乡父老；本国观众
drain n. 下水道 brain drain 人才流失
drainage n. 排水系统 -age 名词后缀 postage 邮资 hostage 人质 orphanage 孤儿院
worship n.祭祀 (warship 战舰)
rite (for religious purposes) 宗教仪式 rites of baptism 洗礼
pray (ask God for help) 祈祷 (prey 猎物)
sacrifices (offer to God) 祭品
fragment n. 碎片 fall into fragments/fall into pieces(口) 摔得粉碎
piece n. eg: I am about to go to pieces. 我快崩溃了
fraction 一小份 in a fraction of a second 片刻，眨眼间
fracture n. 骨折
segment (果实)一块，一瓣 Eg: a segment of an orange 一瓣桔子
make a discovery 做出发现
make a name for oneself 出名
make history 创造历史
make a noise 名噪一时 Eg: Ben Laden really made a noise by 9.11.
make a dent 取得初步的、有效的进展；奏效 Eg: Chinese open-up policy has made a dent.
Eg: Some time ago, an interesting discover was made by archaeologists on the Aegean island of Kea.
Time: some time ago
Place: on the Aegean Island of kea
Event: a discovery was made
stand 坐落, 位于 Eg: China stands in the East of the world.
lie in 坐落, 位于 Eg: A lake lies in the middle of the forest.
lie in wait for 埋伏着等待 Eg: A grand crocodile lies in wait for its prey.
be situated/be located in 坐落于(正式)
enjoy vt. 享有, 享受
enjoy a long history 历史悠久 Eg: China enjoys a long history.
enjoy supports 得到支持 Eg: Geoge. W. Bush enjoyed a lot of supports during the president-election.
enjoy good health (表示身体好) Eg: I enjoy good health.
enjoy large sales 销量很大
enjoy a handsome income 收入很高
be built of stone
be made of stone Eg: He is made of stone. 铁石心肠的人
They had large rooms with beautifully decorated walls.
a man with a beard 山羊胡 a man with a moustache 小胡子 a man with whiskers 络腮胡子 a man with queues 发辫
(Abraham Lincoln) of the people,by the people, and for the people 民有，民治，民享
...from the fifteenth century B.C. until Roman times.
Roman times 古罗马时代 (from 200 B.C. until 400 A.D.)
Eg: Do as the Romans do when in Rome. 入乡随俗
Every road leads to Rome. 条条大路通罗马 (殊途同归)
Rome wasn't built in a day. 罗马不是一天建成的 (冰冻三尺非一日之寒)
holy (god) 神圣的 the holy city: Jerusalem
religious (religion) 宗教的
在带有科技色彩的文章中，应尽量减少主观色彩，所以被动语态是上策，引入主语反而增加主观色彩。 The temple was used...
represent v. 代表 Eg: The Statue of Liberty represents the friendship of France and America.
stand for 代表, 表示
symbolize v. 象征
to be the symbol of 是...的象征，作为...的标志
Eg: Pimple is the symbol of youth. Rose is the symbol of England.
been painted 被上过色
ruins 废墟 be on the road to ruins 走向毁灭
Eg: As the legacy of the male-dominated society, women find it their duty to spend the money men earn.
date from/date back to/go back to/trace back to 可以追溯到；自从...就有 (无被动语态 )
missing head 下落不明的头
be lost 迷路 the lost generation 迷惘的一代
classical a. 传统的，古朴的
Eg: classical music -- popular music classical physica -- quantum physics classical times 古希腊，古罗马时代
classic a. 经典的 Eg: Titanic is a classic film.
class n. 阶级；等级
reconstruct v. 重建，修复 Reconstruction (1865-1877)
turn out to be 竟然是
Eg: To be both a father and mother to a child at the same time turns a child at the same time turns out to be more difficult than he thought. <The kramers>
wear a dress 穿了裙子 wear make-up 化了妆 wear perfume 喷了香水 wear contact lenses 戴隐形眼镜 wear a moustache 蓄小胡子
wear a sad look 一脸愁容 wear pistol 佩戴手枪
full-length TV series 大型电视系列片
full-dress 盛装 full-dress welcome 热烈欢迎，隆重欢迎
despite/in spite of 尽管
so far 到目前为止 (可以引起完成时)
可以引起完成时: until -- until now up to -- up to now by now
Adam's apple 喉结
Adam and Eve 熏肉加鸡蛋
as old as Adam 老掉牙
not know somebody from Adam 根本就不认识某人
Bone of my bone,flesh of my flesh. 血肉相连 Eg: Taiwan is bone of mainlander's bone; flesh of mainlander's flesh.
Dust you are,back to dust you'll return when you die. 本为尘土，死后亦归为尘土
to one's surprise 使某人感到惊讶的是 (在句中可做独立的状语，句子的主语不必是某个人)
with surprise 惊讶地 (首先，必须与行为动词连用；其次，句子的主语必须是某个人) with satisfaction/delight/dismay
Eg: To my great disappointment the train had already left. He smoked his last cigarette with satisfaction.
He went home with dismay. To our dismay the party proved to be a failure.